"I want to build a house, the top of the Louvre, the bottom of the pyramid and the wall like the Great Wall." Such a dream may come true. Recently, a two-story villa with an area of 400 square meters is in Tongzhou District. "I want to build a house, the top of the Louvre, the bottom of the pyramid, and the wall like the Great Wall." The industrial area of Songzhuang town was unveiled. The walls of the whole villa were printed with 3D printing technology. The construction period was only 45 days. According to the builder Beijing Huashang Tengda Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., such a process saves time and labor, and can realize "private customization" and complete the construction of various irregular buildings.
Recently, foreign media reported that the world's first 3D overall printing villa appeared in Tongzhou District of Beijing. The villa is two floors high and covers an area of 400 square meters. It was built by giant printers using special reinforced concrete. It took only 45 days to complete the construction. Unlike the previous 3D printing buildings, the villa was printed by printers on the construction site, not in advance Printed and spliced. How about the house printed out? Yesterday, a reporter from Beijing Youth Daily paid a field visit to Fuhao Industrial Zone in Songzhuang town.
In Beijing Chinese business Tengda Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., this 400 square meter villa is located next to the factory building. It has a dark gray exterior wall, a dark green conical roof, and brown doors and windows. But unlike the traditional four square buildings, this villa belongs to the "abnormal structure". From the front, the side with the glass door inserted in the middle is square, while the two sides are almost impossible The curved wall of the 3D printing villa, which is different from the wall of traditional buildings, presents a ring cake like screw structure.
The villa is about 15 meters long and wide. There are 6 rooms on each floor, covering an area of 200 square meters. At present, the second floor has been simply decorated. Entering the villa, you can obviously feel that the temperature is slightly lower than the high temperature outside. According to Wu Jianping, general manager of Beijing Huashang Tengda Industry and Trade Co., Ltd., the villa is a test product for the company to test 3D printing equipment. It was completed last year and will not be sold to the outside world. The first floor will be displayed by using "model room", the second floor. The staff's office space will be used.
The giant print head works like a cream mounting
Nowadays, 3D printing is widely used in aerospace, auto parts, major equipment, cultural creativity, biomedicine and other fields. Printing a small object is very common, but how to operate the printing house? Building houses with 3D printers is military. Russia once published a 3D printing building, but their principle is to print one by one accessories like Lego building blocks, and then build the walls of the building by assembling them. The Netherlands printed a landscape building called Mobius ring, which was assembled by printing several modules with sand and adhesive, but it didn't finish printing The whole house. This villa in Tongzhou is printed by the printer on the construction site as a whole.
Printing the wall of villa presents cake like thread
In the factory next to Taiwan, Wu Jianping showed his "printer" to reporters of Beiqing daily. The "printer" is 20 meters long, 6 meters wide and 6 meters high. The 6 meter shelf also has a large movable nozzle. The equipment is divided into four systems. The first system is the electronic batching system, the second system is the mixing system, the third system is the conveying system, which transports the mixing materials to the printer, and the last one is the printing system. According to the computer design drawings and plans, the computer inserts the spray head and sprays "ink", which overlaps layer by layer like the cream mounting, and sprays "print" according to the direction of the wall " Wu Jianping told Beiqing daily that whether it's a small 3D printer or such a "super printer", the printing principle is to stack materials one layer, so whether it's a 3D printed cup or a house, there is a circle of threads on the surface, which is the result of stacking printing. Additional equipment will be added to the "printer" to smooth these initial threads and make the house more beautiful.
Wu Jianping said that the more complex the building structure is, the more obvious the advantage of 3D printing technology is. Any shape of building can be printed out by computer as long as there are drawings, "print out what you want, give the house a 'private customization', and the accuracy is also higher. The accuracy of artificial building is in cm, and use 'printing'
The printing machine can be accurate to millimeter.
The 20 meter long giant printer can realize the "private customization" of the house
3D printing reduces the three-month construction period to 45 days
The 3D printer does not use ink, but unlike the high-tech materials such as nano materials used in aerospace, medical and other fields for 3D printing, this villa uses ordinary concrete, which is completely consistent with the traditional building. , but the adhesive has chemical composition, which is easy to change over time. But the material of the villa is reinforced concrete, which is suitable for the requirements of the current construction industry. " According to Wu Jianping, the walls and dimension boards of villas are bound with steel bars according to the requirements of the construction industry specifications. The thickness of the walls is 24cm, and the seismic grade is above grade 8. However, the volume of ordinary concrete is relatively high, so the concrete of this "printer" needs to be redeployed.
In addition, this process can save time and labor. The construction period of a 400 square meter villa is about three months to half a year, and 3D printing can be completed in 45 days. It's 10cm. It only takes half an hour for such a house to be built on the first floor, but because the concrete has a solidification process, it can't be built on the next floor immediately after the completion of the first floor, so if the time of mechanical construction is simply calculated, Wu Jianping will tell Beiqing daily that 3D printer can be directly poured and formed, and the formwork process is cancelled, which can reduce the cost of the project and replace it with mechanical construction Labor can shorten the construction period and speed up the construction,
And it is not easy to be affected by weather factors.
The cost of 3D printing house is not low but the future trend
Dialogue person: Tang Zhong, associate professor, School of architecture and urban planning, Tongji University
Can 3D printing house really live in people? Is such a house a concept product or the future of the construction industry? Tang Zhong, associate professor of School of architecture and urban planning, Tongji University, said that the 3D printing house is still in the experimental stage, and there is no corresponding national standard and specification at present. If the structural safety and fire safety can be guaranteed, there should be no big hidden danger in normal living.
Beiqing Daily: how safe is the 3D printing house?
Tang Zhong: 3D printing itself is not an advanced technology, and the price of materials and equipment has declined since its development, so it can be developed from printing small things like human joints to printing large buildings like houses. As a result, the 3D printing house is still the traditional experimental building design and the engineering country has the corresponding standards and specifications, but the 3D printing range is not available at present, there is no wrong way to do things without standards and specifications, but it is not in line with the structural safety, the structure has the earthquake resistance level, and can not collapse, but now the 3D printing houses are one or two floors, and the materials are relatively thick Generally, it can't collapse. There is another aspect. It's fire safety. Is a certain material combustible or not? Is it in line with the fire code. If these two safety transitions are guaranteed, people living in them will have no hidden danger to life and property.
Beiqing Daily: will 3D printing house save more money than traditional building?
Tang Zhong: the cost of 3D printing house is low. Compared with printing other things, the actual printing house cost will not be too low. What's saved is that the traditional way of building has different shapes and different prices. It's built of bricks, but 3D printing must be in pairs. The straight ones must be cheaper than the crooked ones. But 3D printing has nothing to do with the cost. The materials are certainly not ordinary. Even if concrete is used, the printed concrete must be dried quickly to form strength, and the total cost will not be too low.
Beiqing Daily: will 3D printing technology be widely used in the construction industry in the future?
Tang Zhong: now 3D printing houses are widely used in foreign countries. Because of the high labor cost in foreign countries, we still need to move bricks and walls manually to build a large number of houses. However, more and more machines are used to build buildings. This is the "shape" of 3D printing in the future. Brick houses must be horizontal and vertical. All 3D printing houses are basically cool looking shapes. However, in Chinese culture, there are many things about houses, such as a kind of positive air, Fengshui. These problems may not be solved by 3D printing.